Evolution of Computer
Although bits and parts of the history of computer systems may be found in monographs and encyclopedias, a concise description that a newcomer can rapidly understand is difficult to find. This article provides a brief overview. The study examines the important breakthroughs in computer technology from ABACUS to ENIAC and from ENIAC to BISDN. It is intended that the article will be beneficial to a novice or an inquisitive non-expert.
The desire to count, compute, or process data has existed since the dawn of time. The ABACUS, a wooden rack carrying parallel rods on which beads are strung, was the most important early computer equipment. This basic apparatus was used to do addition and subtraction operations. The logarithm was created by a Scottish academic, John Napier (1550-1617), while the rectilinear and circular slide rules were invented by William Oughtred in 1661.
These are analog computers that have been supplanted by pocket calculators in current times.
The discovery of a mechanical adding machine in 1642 by the French scholar Blaise Pascal was an important step forward in the history of computer systems (1623-1662). In 1671, after seeing Pascal’s machine in Paris, the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) constructed a superior one.
Whereas Pascal’s machine could only count, Leibniz’s gadget could also multiply, divide, and calculate the square root. Thomas of Colmar (Charles Xavier Thomas) created the first commercially accessible mechanical calculator in 1820.
This desktop calculator could add, subtract, multiply, and\sdivide. This was followed by a series of sophisticated and upgraded mechanical calculators.
While Thomas of Colmar was working on the mechanical calculator, Charles Babbage (1792-1871) was building the first digital computer in Cambridge, England. By 1822, he had created the “difference engine,” an automated mechanical calculator. In 1833, he began work on the “analytic machine,” a general-purpose, programmable, automated mechanical digital computer. Unfortunately, Babbage’s analytical engine was never built because its design demanded manufacturing accuracy that was above the capabilities of the time.
The creation of punch cards, which was first employed during the U.S. census of 1890 by Herman Hollerith and James Powers while working for the U.S. Census Bureau, was a significant step forward in the history of computer systems. The punch cards enabled the calculating machines to become entirely automated. Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 to develop punch-card devices.
After retiring in 1913, Thomas J. Watson, Sr. took over as president of the corporation, which was renamed International Business Machines Corporation in 1924. Later, this business would play an important part in the growth of computer systems.
Generations Of Computers
First-generation of computers: The initial generation of computers (1950-1959) relied on vacuum tubes for logic and ring-shaped ferrite cores for memory. Computers were big, unreliable, and costly during this time period. ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, UNIVAC II, IBM 702, and 650 are among these computers. In 1959, the development of semiconductor digital components signaled the start of the second computer generation. The second generation was distinguished by reduced size and cost, as well as better speed and dependability. Magnetic tape overtook CDs as the primary external storage media.
In 1959, IBM released the 709TX system, followed by the 7094, which dominated the scientific computer market from 1960 through 1964. The IBM 7000, 1400 series, UNIVAC III, RCA 301 and 501, Honeywell 400 and 800, and NCR 315 were all popular second-generation computers.
The second generation of computers: The second computer generation (1959-1969) was followed by the third computer generation (1969-1977), which utilized integrated circuits. In 1958, the integrated circuit (IC) was invented, ushering in the age of microelectronics. With the advent of integrated circuits, it became feasible to fit hundreds of circuit components onto a single small silicon chip. The IBM 360 and 370, UNIVAC 1108, RCA 3301, GE 645, Honeywell 200 series, and DEC PDP-8 were all important members of the third generation.
The third generation of computers: During the period 1964-1971, third generation computers were powered by Integrated Circuits (ICs), which were installed in place of transistors. Along with silicon chips and semiconductors, integrated circuits (ICs) retain transistors. They have the potential to improve system performance and efficiency. This generation of computers employ a keyboard and an operating system that provide users with excellent efficiency.
The Fourth generation of computers: Fourth-generation computers became accessible in the 1980s, when very large-scale integration (VLSI), which involves the placement of thousands of transistors and other circuit parts on a single chip, became more widespread. VLSI technology significantly boosted circuit density.
While ferrite cores were utilized as memory units in the first, second, and third generations of computers, semiconductor devices created using VLSI technology were employed as ultrahigh-access memory units in the fourth generation of computers. The cost decrease coupled with the size-reduction trend resulted in the emergence of personal computers for use in the business, schools, and homes. Several firms, including IBM, Apple Computer, and Radio Shack, began manufacturing and marketing personal computers with great success.
The fifth generation of computers: VLSI technology was replaced by ULSI in fifth generation (1980-to-date) computers (Ultra Large Scale Integration). It enabled the manufacture of microprocessor chips with 10 million electrical components. Parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software were employed in this generation of computers. C, C++, Java,.Net, and other programming languages were employed in this generation.
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